Bharatendu Harishchandra (9 September 1850–6 January 1885), who is known as the father of modern Hindi literature and Hindi theatre, was born in Kashi (Banaras). His father Gopal Chandra was a poet who wrote under the pseudonym Girdhar Das. He was a poet, prose writer, dramatist, editor and philanthropist. He wrote under the pen name "Rasa". He had good knowledge of Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi, Bangla, Gujrati, Urdu and Punjabi. His writings depict the agonies of the people, country's poverty, dependency, inhuman exploitation, the unrest of the middle class and the urge for the progress of the country. He was an influential Hindu "traditionalist". His Poetic works are: Sarvsav, Prem Malika (1871), Prem Madhuri (1875), Prem Tarang (1877), Prem Pralap, Prem Phulwari (1883), Prem Sarowar, Holi (1874), Madhu Mukul (1881), Raag Sangrah (1880), Varsha Vinod (1880), Vinya Prem Pachassa (1881), Phoolon Ka Guchha (1882), Chandravali in 1876, Krishan Charitra (1883), Utraradh Bhagat Mal (1876–77), Premashru Varshan.